Soil geology

Throughout history stone exploitation, i.e. stone mining is the first type of mining, which dates from the prehistoric period. Prehistoric mines in France and England bear witness of the trenches and pits used by man in that period, where the stone was selectively excavated based on hardness and size, and men shaped it in order to use it as a tool or weapon. There is a long tradition of mineral raw materials exploitation in Croatia.

Croatia’s land relief consists of three basic groups of rocks: sedimentary rocks (which make 95% of Croatia’s relief), metamorphic rocks (which make 2 – 4% of Croatia’s relief) and igneous rocks (which make 1% of Croatia’s relief).

The most common of sedimentary rocks are clastic rocks (sandstone, conglomerate, marl, breccia) clastic and organic rocks (limestone and dolomite). The most common metamorphic rocks are marble, schist, gneiss, while the most common igneous rocks are andesite and granite.

According to prevalence and age of rocks, the oldest rocks are located in the cores of the ”island“ mountains such as Papuk, Psunj and Moslavačka gora. The most prevailing rock of the Mesozoic era are carbonate rocks (dolomite and limestone) in the karst and mostly in Banovna, Kordun, Gorski kotar, Velebit, Lika and Dalmatia. The most recent rocks belong to the Cenozoic era (classical sediments) in the Pannonian and peri-Pannonian area.